The central idea is that video games require their own set of concepts to be analysed. Although games have narrative that can be analysed in terms of literary analysis, have art, sculpture, design and “visuals” that can be analysed in terms of aesthetics, and have ideological content that can be analysed in terms of critical theory, games also have an element that can only be analysed on its own terms: gameplay. My argument is that gameplay, as a balance between the active and the passive, between what I do and what the game does to me, can only be analysed existentially. And, when looked at existentially, which is to say how I live the game as a possible way for me to be, of all the traditional art forms it is closest to dance.
It is tempting–and I must admit I am very tempted to do this–to take this analogy too far. In so doing, I would produce a choreography of gameplay. I would sneak my way into this discipline, pillage it for concepts, and make a name for myself by talking about the “plié” in the key combinations of Street Fighter II whilst likening the combat system of Arkham Asylum to Black Lace action dances. This would make a farce of both the science of dance and the science of video games.
Nevertheless, our experience of dance, even if we have only ever tapped our foot along to YMCA as we sit beside the buffet at the family disco, is something we can examine and learn from. And, in so doing, we can see that our activity in moving our bodies in time to music is far closer to our activity playing Arkham Asylum than is our activity in watching The Dark Knight or reading The Killing Joke.
Take the Macarena: a dance that, bar disability, we can all attempt. It is not enough to know the actions, or indeed the order of the actions. I cannot simply act the Macarena in my own way in the way I can doodle a circle or a triangle. When I draw or write, the temporality of my action does not matter except that the act should be performed in the right order. What does not matter is the rhythm of my act. In contrast, to dance the Macarena, I need the beat. The easiest way of solving this problem, if I were to want to dance the Macarena in this Starbucks, would be to sing the song out loud or quietly in my head. If I have the appropriate timing, this will let me dance to the beat. Alternatively, I could dance the Macarena along to the smooth, inoffensive jazz track being played out the speakers here, provided the song is in the same time signature to the Macarena itself: 4/4. The dance moves themselves only require a beat in 4/4, a beat that can be imagined in my mind, sung, clapped, or some other song. The speed is variable, all that matters is that the correct beat is there, and that I move the body in time with the music, that I find my groove.
Groove is analogous to gameplay. Groove does not exist either in the dancer, the dance moves, nor the music nor the beat. Groove is my timing to the music as I move. To bring in some Kantian terminology, it is a synthesis the dancer performs between their body, the moves, and the beat. Similarly, gameplay is a synthesis the gamer performs between their bodies, the controlling device, and the game itself. It is not an action I perform, but it is a sewing together of my acts with a set of rules determining how I should act and when. Groove and gameplay are both a nexus of parts, an emergent property of the audience and artwork.
Learning to play a game is never about learning a set of rules or the “mechanics”. it is never enough to know the rulebook or the instructions. The rules must be inhabited, incorporated into my habits, and lived as a skill. For example, I have been trying to learn how to play Crusader Kings II for years now, and constantly failed. I understood, before I bought the thing, the basic principles, mechanics, and rules: build your stats, keep your vassals and council happy, take over Europe by acquiring land through military, political, and economic might. I understand these things intellectually, I know how to do each act through the interface. However, I could not find my groove. I could not play the game, despite being able to perform the actions. Similarly, being able to walk on the tips of your toes and kick does not mean you can perform the dance of the cygnets.
The roadblock: I tried to play the rules and not the game. I tried to perfect each movement of the arms and legs, not find the groove and simply play. I treated the game like it was a spreadsheet I had to get to add up to 100%. However, when I took the time to just let the clock tick, to allow bad things to happen to my dynasty, in short, to listen to the rhythm section of the game’s performance, I found the groove, and was able to play, albeit badly.
To learn the game, you have to hear the beat and find your groove. You have to move your body (even if this is only mouse clicks) in anticipation of what the core gameplay loop wants you to do. If you fight the loop, for example, if you try to play Doom (2016) as a sniper, you may as well try to dance the Macarena to Take Five. You know, because it’s in a 5/4 time signature